Citric acid of 90%, 2000.0872 (CR300 Citric Acid of 90%) T4123
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For receiving citric acid by microbic synthesis in vitro used micromycetes (Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium luteum, P. citricum, Mucor piriformis, Ustina vulgaris, etc.), but for industrial biosynthesis by the most suitable there was Aspergillus niger. Afterwards from it the set of production strains for biosynthesis of citric acid from sucrose has been selected.
Many organic substances are fermented by micromycetes and can be transformed to citric acid, but the maximum exit turns out at biosynthesis from sucrose or fructose. Recently experiments on biosynthesis of citric acid by yeast (Candida lipolytica, etc.) from paraffin and the lower alcohol (ethanol) with high yield (80 — 140%) are successfully completed.
Citric acid on output is one of staples of microbic synthesis. Its general release in the different countries reaches 400 thousand tons a year (according to V. A. Smirnov, 1983). Citric acid is received generally from molasses. Plants of small or average power make citric acid by superficial method of cultivation. The deep method is economic when capacity of plant exceeds 2500 t of citric acid a year.
Citric acid is widely used in cookery and in the food industry for preparation of soft drinks, fruit jelly, wafers, fruit candy, etc. Citric acid is included in compoundings of some grades of sausages and cheese, it is applied in winemaking, to refinement of vegetable oils, to production of condensed milk. By means of citric acid natural taste and aroma at long-term storage in the frozen condition of meat and fish remain.
At the moderate use citric acid stimulates activity of pancreas, stimulates appetite, promotes assimilation of food.
Sodium citrates stimulate foaming and mechanical stability of foams therefore citric acid is appreciated by culinary specialists, also apply it to production of shampoos and detergents. The last has important ecological value as citric acid and its salts easily give in to microbiological degradation at purification of sewer waters.
Application is found also by fermentation by-products: mycelium of mushrooms and cultural liquid. The mycelium is dried up and used as raw materials or added to fertilizers. Use of mycelium as source of chitin which serves as biosorbent is recently offered. Chitosan - the gluconic complex received their mycelium possesses the best chelating properties, than chitosan of animals. In cultural liquid hydrolases of pektinaz, protease, tselyulaza and β-glucosidase are found..........