The heating kolpakovy furnace of Germ (to 250 CBM)
For the first time kolpakovy furnaces appeared in Russia. They were developed in the twenties the last century for metallurgical industry by the Russian scientist Vladimir Efimovich Grum-Grzhimaylo (1864 — 1928). Its hydraulic theory of calculation of flame furnaces completely kept the value and in application to household furnaces. The principle of operation of kolpakovy furnaces is that the hot smoke rises and fills the cap closed from above, forming there, according to V. E. Grum-Grzhimaylo, "a bag of hot gases". Then the cooling-down smoke is forced out by a hot smoke and falls down from where is removed through a flue. That is in each part of the furnace to the movement of gases such direction which answers their natural aspiration is set: streams of hot gas go up, streams of the cooled gas — down. This principle is easily illustrated if to bring the smoking cigarette under the glass turned upside down. It is well visible how the hot smoke rises up, filling glass volume. Having reached a bottom, the smoke is cooled and begins to fall down, coming to light. For the best heat exchange in a cap of the Germa furnace convective pipes and a small open oven in which it is possible to warm and support food in a hot state are placed.