STH octane for hromatogr. (3 ml)
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Octane (N octane) — organic compound of class of alkanes. Colorless liquid with specific smell; octane value 17 — 19.
The octane contains in petrol fraction of oil and products of its destructive processing, in alkylate, is formed at hydrocarbon synthesis by Fischer-Tropsh's method. In prom-st it is allocated from the specified products with rectification in combination with the selection adsorption on zeolites or complex formation with urea. In lab. conditions receive hydrogenation it is octynic, on r-tsii Vyurtsa from 1 chlorbutane, etc.
The commercially pure isooctane is received dimerization of isobutylene about afterbirth. hydrogenation on the nickel or copper-chrome catalyst. At isobutane alkylation by isobutylene in prinut. H2SO4, HF or other acid catalysts receive tekhn. the isooctane containing means. quantity of isomeric octanes of branched structure and products of polyalkylation (t-ra of vykipaniye of 98-185 °C, octane number 92-97).
Apply octane in pro-publishing house of xylols, octanol, octanal and also as r-ritel. As the component of gasoline is not of great importance because of low detonats. firmness (octane value 19). Application of isooctane is caused its high detonats. firmness (octane value is accepted for 100). The commercially pure isooctane is used as primary reference fuel for definition of rating of gasoline, technical - as component aviats. gasolines. Chemical prevrashch. isooctane praktich. do not matter.
Octanes easily ignite, in mix with air are explosive. Are non-toxical, do not possess allergenic and cancerogenic sv-you.