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The plan of evacuation at the fire

The plan of evacuation at the fire

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Kazakhstan, Almaty
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Description

Appendix 1
to Fire safety regulations

Recommendations about evacuation scheduling

1. In buildings and constructions (except houses) at single stay on the floor more than 10 people by administration are developed plans of evacuation of people for a fire emergence case.
Plans of evacuation contain graphic and text speak rapidly. The graphic part includes floor-by-floor (posektorny) planning of the building or a construction with the indication of emergency exits (staircases, external open ladders, exits directly outside), routes of the movement of the audience and service personnel, and also the symbolical image of the locations of buttons of manual fire announcers, telephone sets, fire extinguishing means (fireplugs, fire extinguishers).
In text part the order and sequence of evacuation of people, obligations of service personnel, and also the attracted forces for service of competition or cultural and spectacular action for the notification about the fire and the organization of the movement of people to emergency exits is in detail stated.
2. When developing the plan of evacuation several (3-5) options of evacuation of people from a construction or the building depending on the most probable places of emergence of the fire, possible nature of its development, load of a construction with the audience and presence of the additional forces attracted to competitions and cultural and spectacular actions are provided.
Are reflected in text part of plans of evacuation for each of options:
– the organization of the warning system of people about the fire (who make the decision on need of evacuation, a zone of the notification and ways of the notification, the contingent of notified);
– the number of persons of service personnel, and also the additional forces attracted to evacuation (an order of their collecting, the place of collecting, seniors on zones and sectors, signals of collecting);
– evacuation routes (their extent and the direction responsible for routes, a movement order at evacuation, a duty of service personnel and the additional forces participating in evacuation process);
– terminal points of following (an order of dispersal evacuated, rendering to it in need of medical care);
– use order for evacuation of the audience of emergency exits, a possibility of use of the special equipment, and also various equipment and engineering systems for the organization of evacuation and its successful carrying out (systems of smoke removal, automatic installations of fire extinguishing, internal telecommunication, radio stations).
3. Routes of the movement of people at evacuation are specified in graphic part of the plan (the continuous line of green color with shooters in the direction of emergency exits). In case of stay it is necessary to provide the evacuation zones designated on plans by various color shades with the indication of the direction of evacuation from these zones in a construction of a large number of people. On the plan of evacuation evacuation side-tracks (a dashed line of green color) are specified.
4. The plan of evacuation (graphic and text speak rapidly) is visually made out and hung out in a visible place in rooms of a fire post or other room with the round-the-clock watch of service personnel, and also at the management of object.
Interpretation of symbols in graphic part is carried out under the plan of evacuation in the state and Russian languages.
5. Except the general plan of evacuation for a construction in general each zone (sector, group of rooms) is provided with extracts from the general plan of evacuation (various options) with an instruction about measures of fire safety and rules of conduct in the conditions of the fire which have to be at responsible persons on duty on zones, sectors.
On an extract from the plan of evacuation are specified: staircases, elevators and lift halls, rooms with designation of doorways, balconies, corridors, external ladders.
The room for which the extract from the plan of evacuation is intended, note on the floor-by-floor plan of sector, zone the inscription "The Room, Zone where You Are.". The way of evacuation is specified on this extract by the continuous line of green color.
The lines specifying the direction of evacuation are carried out from the considered placement to an exit to the safe place or directly outside.
Extract from the plan of evacuation not less than 20х30 centimeters hang out indoors in a visible place under glass (film), the extract size from the plan.
Under an extract from the plan of evacuation interpretation of the used symbols is specified.
Duties of persons and sequence of actions of service personnel, and also the attracted forces involved in evacuation of people are specified in text part of an extract.
The text part of an extract from the general plan of evacuation is at the person responsible for evacuation from a zone, sector, the room.
The plan of evacuation is approved by the director, the organizations.
All service personnel, and also the auxiliary forces involved in evacuation of the audience examine the maintenance of an extract (under a list).

The plan of evacuation — the document in which evacuation ways and exits are specified rules of conduct of people, and also an order and sequence of actions of service personnel on object are established at emergence of an emergency situation . The plan of evacuation, signs of safety and direction signs allow to take necessary measures for evacuation of people from places of a mass congestion at emergence of emergency situations.

On object with mass stay of people (except houses), and also on object with workplaces on the floor for 10 and more people the head of the organization provides existence of plans of evacuation of people at the fire [1] .

Purpose of the plan of evacuation:

  • it is accurate to designate the ways of evacuation, emergency exits ensuring safety of process of the organized independent movement of people outside from rooms in which there is a possibility of impact on them of dangerous factors of the fire, without the fire extinguishing means applied in them and protection against a smoke;
  • to specify an arrangement of the fire equipment and means of the notification about the fire;
  • to remind of prime actions which each person who found the begun fire needs to undertake.

Contents

[ to clean ]

  • 1 Creation of plans of evacuation
    • 1.1 Requirements to plans of evacuation
    • 1.2 The software for development of plans of evacuation
  • 2 References
  • 3 Notes

Creation of plans of evacuation [ to govern | to edit the viki-text ]

Plan of evacuation

Creation of plans of evacuation is regulated by GOST P 12.2.143-2009 (with changes No. 1 of 2012).

Plans of evacuation represent schemes on which contours of rooms, corridors, ladder marches in buildings and constructions where people can be and work are applied. On these schemes symbols (elements) specified ways of evacuation, emergency and emergency exits, the locations of fire-fighting equipment, emergency phones of communication, means of first aid and additional resources of rescue (for example, gas masks etc.). On plans of evacuation all symbols applied on them, and also the established rules of conduct of people, an order and sequence of their actions in the conditions of an emergency (emergency) situation are deciphered.

Requirements to plans of evacuation [ to govern | to edit the viki-text ]

The main requirements are presented in GOST 12.2.143-2009 (with changes No. 1 of 2012).

Plans of evacuation can be floor, section, local and summary (general). Floor plans of evacuation are developed for the floor in general. Section plans of evacuation should be developed:

  • if the area of the floor is more than 1000 m ²;
  • in the presence on the floor of several isolated emergency exits separated from other parts of the floor by a wall, a partition;
  • in the presence on the floor of sliding, lifting and lowering and revolving doors, turnstiles;
  • at difficult (confused or extended) ways of evacuation.

The second copies of the floor (section) plans of evacuation relating to one building, a construction, the vehicle or object include in the consolidating (general) plan of evacuation for the building, constructions, the vehicle or object in general.

Consolidating plans of evacuation should be stored at the person on duty and to give out according to the first requirement of the head of elimination of an emergency situation.

Local plans of evacuation should be developed for certain rooms (numbers of hotels, the hostel, hospital chambers, cabins of passenger ships, etc.).

At work on reconstruction or re-planning of the building, a construction, the vehicle, object corresponding changes have to be made to the plan of evacuation.

Plans of evacuation have to consist of graphic and text parts. The graphic part has to include floor (section) planning of the building, a construction, the vehicle, object with the instruction:

  • ways of evacuation;
  • emergency exits and (or) locations of saving means;
  • emergency exits, nezadymlyaemy staircases, external open ladders, etc.;
  • locations of the plan of evacuation in the building, a construction, the vehicle, object;
  • locations of the saving means designated by signs of safety and symbols of IMO;
  • locations of the means of fire-prevention protection designated by signs of fire safety and symbols of IMO.

Tsvetografichesky images of signs of safety, symbols of IMO and signs of safety (symbols) of branch appointment on plans of evacuation have to conform to requirements of GOST P 12.4.026 , Resolutions to IMO A.654 (16) [7], A.760 (18) [6] and normative documents of branch appointment.

Signs of safety and symbols can be added with digital, alphabetic or alphanumeric references.

Height of signs of safety and symbols on the plan of evacuation has to be from 8 to 15 m [2] m , on one plan of evacuation they have to be executed in uniform scale.

For signs of safety, symbols and conditional graphic symbols explanations of their semantic value in text part of the plan of evacuation have to be given.

On floor plans of evacuation in graphic part number of the floor has to be specified.

In text part it is necessary to state:

  • ways of the notification about emergence of an emergency situation (the fire, accident, etc.);
  • order and sequence of evacuation of people;
  • duties and actions of people, including order of a call of fire or rescue divisions, emergency medical care, etc.;
  • order of an emergency stop of the equipment, mechanisms, shutdowns of power supply, etc.;
  • order of the manual (duplicating) inclusion of systems (installations) of fire and antiemergency automatic equipment.
  • the name of the organization of the developer of the plan of the evacuation having special permission to implementation of this activity with marking of the plan of evacuation according to the requirement of 10.1 present standards.

The sizes of plans of evacuation choose depending on its purpose, room space, quantity of emergency and emergency exits:

  • 600х400 mm - for floor and section plans of evacuation;
  • 400х300 mm - for local plans of evacuation. [3]

The ways of evacuation conducting to the main emergency exits should be designated the continuous line of green color with the indication of the direction of the movement. The ways of evacuation conducting to emergency emergency exits should be designated the shaped line of green color with the indication of the direction of the movement. [the source is not specified 1167 days]

Plans of evacuation should be implemented on the basis of photoluminescent materials. Till July 1st, 2010 it was allowed to use for implementation of plans of evacuation not shining materials which have to conform to the requirements of GOST P 12.4.026 established to not shining materials. Since July first in connection with entry into force of GOST P 12.2.143-2009 the plan of evacuation can be made only with use of photoluminescent materials. The background of the plan of evacuation has to be yellow-white or white for photoluminescent materials and white for not shining materials. Inscriptions and graphics on the plan of evacuation (except signs of safety and symbols) have to be black color irrespective of a background. A font of inscriptions on the plan of evacuation in accordance with GOST P 12.4.026. Height of a font is not less than 3 mm (according to changes No. 1 in GOST 12.2.143-2009).

The developed plans of evacuation are approved by the head of the organization and are the basis for their reproduction and posting on walls of rooms and corridors, on columns, etc. in strict accordance with the location specified on the plan of evacuation. [the source is not specified 1167 days]

The software for development of plans of evacuation [ to govern | to edit the viki-text ]

Development of the plan of evacuation in SAPR AutoCAD

In most cases plans of evacuation are developed in computer-aided engineering systems , such as AutoCAD (including vertical decisions), Bricscad , ZwCAD , the Compass , etc. For simplification and partial automation of creation of plans of evacuation applied programs makeweights can be used.
For example, the specialized software package of SunoCAD EVA (for installation under AutoCAD) allows to create all necessary elements of the plan (a framework, arrows (a way of evacuation), safety signs, information tables, walls, windows and doors) in the semi-automatic mode according to the last changes in the existing standards.

One more specialized independent SAPR-program for creation of plans of evacuation — the Plan of evacuation 10 (SoftGold developer). In it the existing Russian standards are considered.

Also for development of plans it is possible to use the programs CorelDraw, Microsoft Visio and similar to them software products that allows to do without osvaivaniye of CAD-like programs, however demands additional preparation and has the technical features.

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